What is jurisprudence “Fiqh” ? What are the jurisprudence sections ?

You may hear the word jurisprudence and do not know the difference between it and other Shari’a sciences, or you may think that jurisprudence is Shari’a itself, but the truth is that jurisprudence is a broad science within Islam sciences.

And if we mention the Islam sciences such as interpretation, hadith, and others, then we cannot complete our words without mentioning jurisprudence, which takes all these texts and positions, and adds to them the scholarsijtihad(disciplined, academic research), to come up with a ruling or a fatwa in the end, which in the end is what is called “the jurisprudence.”

Jurisprudence”Fiqh” Definition :

Jurisprudence in language: is understanding, or let us say that it is absolute understanding, that is, it is the understanding highest degree, understanding of details, and knowledge of what is between the lines (deriving sets of guidelines, rules, and regulations from the rulings laid down in the Qur’an and the teachings and living example of the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ, the Sunnah ), so when the Prophet ﷺsupplicated for his cousin, our master Abdullah bin Abbas, (RA), he said: “Oh God, give him understanding in religion.” i.e. to teach Abdullah bin Abbas interpretation where he became a jurist, and an imam to be followed in interpretation, because the Prophetﷺdid does not say in his supplication for Ibn Abbas, to understand religion, but to give him understanding in religion,( There is a big difference in meaning). Indeed, Ibn Abbas was specialized in fatwas during Umar’s and Uthman’s eras (RA), and he was one of the most knowledgeable of the Companions (RA).

And the Messenger of God, ﷺ, said: “To whomever Allah wills goodness, He grants him an understanding of the religion.” [Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 71, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 1037]

Idiomatically, jurisprudence is the absolute understanding of the rulings of the Shari’a, for Shari’a is based on the foundations of the legal text where there is never distortion, error, or slippage. Also, jurisprudence is the scholars’ ijtihad (disciplined, academic research) in issuing fatwas based on these legal texts.

The Prophet, ﷺ, used to give fatwas(is a nonbinding legal opinion on a point of Islamic law (Shari’a), to his companions (RA), and the Messenger of God, ﷺ, died, and life continues, and there are countless matters that require fatwas and legal rulings. Accordingly, there was an urgent need for the science of jurisprudence, and in defining it, the jurists concluded that it is “derivation of legal rulings from its evidence,” and Al-Shafi’i said in it that it is “The knowledge of legal rulings acquired from their detailed evidence,” and jurisprudence’s scholars followed him.

Jurisprudence “Fiqh” scholars

People know the four famous schools of jurisprudence, of our masters: Abu Hanifa, Al-Shafi’i, Malik, and IbnHanbal, and every era, time, and the place had a jurist as well, and more than one expert and sincere jurist may gather in one place.

Among the Companions’ jurists (RA)were the Rightly-Guided Caliphs, Abu Bakr, Umar, Othman, and Ali, as well as their brothers Abdullah bin Masoud, Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari, Ubay bin Ka’b, Muadh bin Jabal, Zaid bin Thabit, Abu Al-Darda’, the of the believers’ Mother Aisha(RA), and the fourAbdullahs: Abdullah bin Abbas, Abdullah bin Zubair bin Al-Awwam and Abdullah bin Umar bin Al-Khattab and Abdullah bin Amr bin Al-Aas, lots of Companions and followers (RA) and the followers succeeded them and followed them in goodness until the Day of Judgment.

Among the jurists who shone stars in the space of Islam are our masters Al-Hassan Al-Basri, Al-Layth bin Saad, and Imam Al-Sha’bi.

Jurisprudence “Fiqh” Sections :

Fiqh is divided into two main sections: Jurisprudence of worship and jurisprudence of transactions.

The jurisprudence of worship: It includes practical rulings for the actions of the person responsible and his relationship with God Almighty, namely: purity, prayer, zakat, fasting, pilgrimage, and what falls under that.

And jurisprudence of transactions: It includes a set of practical legal rulings, which regulate the taxpayer’s relationship with others in daily life, it includes: civil rulings, family jurisprudence ( marriage, divorce, and the like), correct and corrupt behavior in the street, in the market, economic rulings, contracts, and even dealings with non-Muslims.

Jurisprudence today

With the development of the times, the Muslim seems strange in the midst of what he meets every day of new changes in his life, in his worship, in his dealings, in his heart and soul, in others and the surroundings, and therefore he stops more than once every day, asking about the ruling on what he is doing, wants a fatwa before doing, or after he did, so he wants to gain understanding in the religion to possess the good of this World and the Hereafter.

In accordance with the hadith of the Messenger of God, ﷺ, that, “Whomever God wills goodness for, He grants  him an understanding of the religion .” And accordingly, we are with our jurists, who received the science of jurisprudence by senior scholars, in the honorable Al-Azhar and other Islam beacons. We welcome you; the advice of the Messenger of Godﷺ.

And we open a door for you to understand religion as the Prophet ﷺcommanded us, where we teach the Islamic Shariah rulings, and stand at legal rulings we inherited from the Prophet’s ﷺ era, passing through his Companions (RA), in accordance with worship and transactions on the four schools’ views, sporadic or combined, and on jurists’ijma’ (consensus) after them, down to our modern era jurisprudence, and daily issues placed in the muftis’ hands, who devoted themselves and their ages for God’s sake, to learn and issue fatwas to facilitate common Muslims’ lives, in the cause of God’s pleasure.