What is (البلاغة / Al- Balaghah) “Rhetoric”, and what are the three basic sciences of rhetoric, known as the sections of rhetoric?
Many people may be alienated when they hear the word rhetoric, imagining that it is complex and that a person comes up with difficult words that they do not understand, but that is not rhetoric anymore, and this is a kind of linguistic pedantry, and brag about words, because rhetoric is never difficult for people to understand. The rhetoric meaning in the language: the word Balaghah comes from the verb لتصل ( litasil ) (to reach) which means he reached anything and ended up with it, and the speaker wants the listener to understand it.
Rhetoric idiomatically is that: the speech corresponds to the situation of the listeners, with its eloquence, and it can be in the best images, words, and meanings. What is important is that the listener understands it and feels the beauty that permeates its letters, so that the listener will be understanding, and the speaker will have a good statement and eloquent tongue.
Moreover, rhetoric is one of the sciences of the Arabic language, therefore, every Arabic speaker must have a share of it. It is divided in turn into three Sections.
The Sections of rhetoric are:
The science of rhetoric is divided into three sections: the science of المعاني)/ Meanings), the science of البيان) /Eloquence), and the science of البديع) /Budaiya(. And you will find yourself while you speak, very eloquent, especially in your sweet moments where your mind pleases, and your tongue exudes the most beautiful in your heart. And if you focused on speech, and studied it, you would have come out of it with one of the many branches of the three Sections.
The science of semantics is the one that is concerned with studying the entire text. Your task in it is to produce the text in the best possible way, not word by word, but by sentences coherence, phrases flow, and the text moving between questions here, and news there, so that it is complete in meanings, and it has reached its goal.
Examples of semantics in rhetoric are many, such as presentation and delay, separation and connection, news and creation, interrogative, elimination and remembrance, definition, and disclaimer. An example of construction methods is the saying of God Almighty:
“ وَاعْتَصِمُوا بِحَبْلِ اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا وَلَا تَفَرَّقُوا “
(WaiAAtasimoo bihabli Allahi jameeAAan wala tafarraqo)
“And hold fast, all together, by the rope which Allah (stretches out for you), and be not divided among yourselves.”
In order to understand each science separately, each chapter, each chapter, each section, and each branch, we here at IQRA Platform offer you rhetoric lessons within a complete curriculum, facilitating it to the student of knowledge, and if rhetoric aims to be understood by the listener, then our main goal here at IQRA is to assist the learner to understand us by doing our best to be eloquent with him, to achieve together what we are concerned to teach him as well as what he is motivated to learn. We dream that one day, the learner will become a teacher, teaching what he has learned. In addition to that, IQRA curricula and its professional learning-teaching process, have been supervised by professors specialized in Arabic language sciences and graduated from the largest colleges such as Dar Al Uloom, Al-Azhar University, and other Arabic language sciences similar Colleges.
By continuing talking about the sciences of rhetoric; the second science i.e., the science of eloquence; is used to show one meaning in multiple styles, and different ways. E.g. when we say that students are like the stars, their teachers are like the moons, science itself is like the sun the source of light, and God is the Light that Provides us with this all.
The science of eloquence includes the analogy, with its types: a sent simile, an emphatic simile, a detailed/ complete simile, an overall simile, a representational simile, and an implicit simile. It also contains metaphor: mental and linguistic, metaphor and declarative borrowing, a metonymy: about an adjective, the described, and a ratio, and what is in the whole of the eloquent, and beautiful details.
The third science of rhetoric is the science of Budaiya.
If the science of semantics is concerned with the text in its entirety, with all of its meanings, and with the methods of writing between construction and news and others within what is written, and the science of rhetoric is concerned with communicating the same meaning in multiple ways, and is artistic in expressing the same idea in a thousand ways. The science of Budaiya is the owner of the final touch that reconciles the three sciences together, as it coordinates sentences, arranges phrases, and even arranges letters within words, and puts the moral and verbal improvements on them, so the whole structure is coherent, consistent, easy to reach any detail of it without any effort.
Where we find the muqalalah ( interviewing), the counterfeiting, and the pun. An example of the counterpoint that came in the Book of God Almighty is as follows:
“watahsabuhum ayqazan wahum ruquudun”
“وَتَحْسَبُهُمْ أَيْقَاظًا وَهُمْ رُقُودٌ”
“ And you think they are awake while they are asleep ”
and here is a counterpoint between “أيقاظ” “ayqazan” (awakening) and “رقود” “ruquudun” (asleep ). And if you stop at “وتحسبهم أيقاظًا” “watahsabuhum ayqazan”( And you think they are awake ), perhaps the meaning will be full, but it would be fixed in your mind with that beauty, when you complete “وهم رقود” “wahum ruquudun” ” they are asleep.”
And what is related to verbal improvements in the science of Budaiya is amazing, such as all types of anagrams, assonance, good division, inflection and other forms of verbal Budaiya will fascinate you. E.g.,
“فَأَمَّا الْيَتِيمَ فَلَا تَقْهَرْ * وَأَمَّا السَّائِلَ فَلَا تَنْهَرْ”.
“Fa’ammā l-Yatīma Falā Taqhar* Wa ‘Ammā s-Sā’ila Falā Tanhar”
“So as for the orphan then (do) not oppress* And as for him who asks then (do) not repel”
Here, we have tried our best to summarize the definition of rhetoric and its three sciences for you, and there is nothing left for you to navigate further into the depths of the beautiful wide sea of rhetoric, except one click on our courses in the IQRA Platform, you will get our teachers, who sailed through the Arabic language and rhetoric sciences, obtained lots of these sciences, and now they are very keen to accompany you to navigate into this knowledge that its owner never tires of.