قَالَ سَنَشُدُّ عَضُدَكَ بِأَخِيكَ
Qaala sanashuddu ‘adudaka bi akheeka
Allah said: “We will strengthen your arm through your brother..”
In the Arabic language, there are diacritics [including the fat-ha, dhammah and kasrah] that can be the reason a word’s meaning changes completely. One of these diacritics is the shaddah. Insha Allah I will briefly explain what this is and move on to the Tajweed rule regarding the Noon and Meem letters that have a shaddah.
Directly translating the word shaddah, results in the meaning “[sign of] emphasis”. In general language, it means to pull or make something tight. But how does the shaddah actually function? It stresses a letter by doubling it’s sound. As given in a previous post [see “Al-Noon Al-Saakinah: rule four”], a shaddah consists of two letters [hence the doubling]:
The first letter is a saakin, i.e. it has sukoon on it
The second letter has a respective diacritic, fat-ha, dammah, or kasrah.
The example given in the previous post was:
Here we noted that the first shaddah on the laam was there for notice purposes, and the second was there to be a shaddah and double that second laam. And so the word is read as:
lil-latheena as written above, lillatheena
See, two laam‘s.
Just to be sure it all makes sense, a few more examples of shaddah are as follow:
اتَّبَعُوا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ
kar-ratan fanatabar-ra‘a _________it-tabi‘u
karratan fanatabarra’a ___________ittabi‘u
wal mutal-laqaatu yatarab-basna
wal mutallaqaatu yatarabbasna
وَبُعُولَتُهُنَّ أَحَقُّ بِرَدِّهِنَّ
bu‘ulatuhun-na ahaq-qu birad-dihin-na
bu‘ulatuhunna ahaqqu biraddihinna
To briefly explain the colour code. The light green is where the doubling of the letter occurs. The darker green is the respective diacritic that follows the doubling.
Now that the shaddah is down-pat understood, the Tajweed rule regarding the shaddah is as follows.
For every noon and meem mushaddad, i.e. for every noon and meem that have a shaddah, one must sound a ghunnah.
Recall a ghunnah is the sound made entirely by the nose [nasal passage]. It is almost like a hum and completes the sound of the noon or meem. Ghunnah is directly translated to “nasalisation” and this should not be longer than two counts. i.e. similar to the time it takes to say the words: “one – two”
This rule in Arabic is called, ghunnat noon/meem mushaddadah.
It is the simplest rule, because you just need to check, does the noon/meem have a shaddah on top? If so, sound a ghunnah.
Examples for ghunnat noon mushadadah are:
إِنَّ أَنَّ منَّا إنَّك إِنَّا إِنَّما
Examples of ghunnat meem mushaddadah are:
إِمَّا وإِمَّا أمَّن فأَمَّا فإِمَّا
And it’s as simple as that! This Tajweed rule is complete! Where you see a shaddah on a meem or noon, just do a ghunnah.
As I mentioned, diacritics have the ability to change the entire meaning of a word/sentence. I don’t like to just say things, so let’s prove it.
Let’s look at the word:
Darasa means “he studied”. Now let’s add a shaddah to this word:
Darrasa means “he taught”. Very simple, very big difference. One more example.
This sentence means “a boy cried”.
Adding another two shaddah causes two things, letters alif and laam to be added making the boy an object being pointed to, and the meaning to change.
Which means “[he] made the boy cry”.
Later you will come to realise that not only do diacritics change the meaning of things, but so does the pronunciation of a letter.
As for Tajweed, just remember shaddah + meem or noon = ghunnah.
–Shaddah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]
[Gatway To Arabic: page 49]
–Ghunnah [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 2]
-Diacritics [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: page 4]
Practicing diacritics exercises up to page 6
[Gateway To Arabic: pages 21 – 24]
-Tajweed Rule [Tajweed Basics: Foundations and More: first half page 10]
Note, these documents are found on the resources page.